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Shantal Tummings

Undergraduate Major: Environmental Engineering

Future Plans:Ph.D in Environmental Engineering

Shantal Tummings

Shantal Tummings was born in Jamaica and moved to Miami, Florida at the age of 12 to further her education. Shantal is pursuing a Bachelor's degree in Environmental Engineering. Shantal's passion for helping others has influenced her research interest in water sanitation in developing countries. Shantal wants to obtain her doctorate in Environmental Engineering to research ways to make clean water readily accessible.

Effect of Gypsum and Residue on Infiltration Rate of Water in Two Soils in Ohio

Conducted at The Ohio State University as a part of the Summer Research Opportunities Program

Mentor: Dr. Warren Dick, Environment and Natural Resource Professor University of Ohio State University

Abstract: Soil compaction and crusts form on the soil surface during intense rainfall events. This reduces infiltration rates of water into the soil profile and leads to increased runoff and soil erosion. In addition, water not stored in soil is unavailable for crop growth and can lead to reduced crop yields. The rate of water infiltration is influenced by several factors such as soil texture, structure, and management techniques (e.g. residue application). In Ohio and the Midwest, there is an abundant supply of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate). This gypsum is created from the burning of coal for energy and is removed from flue gases as regulated by the Clean Air Acts of the United States. Research has demonstrated that the use of gypsum as a soil amendment by farmers can improve crop yields and soil and water quality. However, the effect of gypsum applied alone or combined with plant residues on the infiltration rate of water is not fully understood. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to measure the infiltration rate of water in two contrasting soil types in Ohio (i.e. Wooster silt loam soil and Hoytville clay loam soil) treated with gypsum (cumulative of 26.9 Mg ha-1 applied in four equal doses of 6.72 Mg ha-1 each) and crop residues (13.4 Mg ha-1 applied in a single dose). The effect of treatments on water infiltration was measured using both the double ring infiltrometer method (Wooster soil) and the single ring infiltrometer method (Hoytville soil). Cumulative total water infiltration and the water infiltration rate were calculated to determine parameters for the Kostiakov's model. The infiltration of water was significantly less in Wooster soil as compared to Hoytville soil. The application of gypsum reduces the cumulative infiltration of water in soils significantly as compared to other treatments. Gypsum application might have sealed cracks in Hoytville soil and stimulated the formation of carbonates that clogged pores so that water movement in and through the Hoytville soil was restricted.